In love with our
are regarded as something mysterious, illusive, something that had happened in the distant past,
too distant for anyone to tell us about them, which rumours have it, may be repeated far in the future,
of which it is said that they develop slowly over thousands of years.
Ironically, a rigorously developed scientific factor has contributed
significantly to this mysticism.
development with a focus on the tropics
infrastructure development must be focused onto the tropics. When the Ice Age
begins in 30 years with a 70% dimmer sun, the entire food supply
infrastructure must be located in the tropics. Since land for agriculture is
scarce in the tropics, all relocated agriculture needs to placed afloat onto
the tropical oceans, accessiable by floating bridges between the continents.
The floating agriculture, of course, needs to be serviced by a new breed of
farmers living nearby in floating cities that are augmented with floating
industries, connected with intercontinental high-speed transport.
these infrastructures need to be built. To fail is not an option, because the
current food resources, industries, and habitats will become largely disabled
above the 40 degree latitudes. Food production needs to continue. This means
that agriculture needs to continue. The necessary gigantic task must be
carried out to maintain the life of humanity. Since the task is truly
gigantic, it can only be fulfilled with large-scale automated industrial
processes, and the use of a material that is near infinitely available.
The material is
Basalt is a
stone, basically. But what a stone it is! It has amazing properties. It is
nearly as hard as diamonds, melts at 'low' temperatures (slightly lower than
molten glass), and when it is extruded into the fibers, it is one of the strongest
materials known, second only to carbon fibers.
Just compare the tenacity
(strength) numbers (given in MPa - mega Pascal; 1 Pa=1kg/square meter). The
number for basalt is right up with the best of them:
The best glass fibers: 4,710
Basalt fibers: 4,870
Carbon fibers: 5,650
is 12 times stronger than steel,
in this comparison, basalt is nearly three times lighter. These amazing
qualities of basalt, altogether, enable equally amazing technological
capabilities for industrial processes.
why basalt is not yet widely used, is society's reluctance to use its vast
nuclear power resources that it is able to develop. Society's thinking is too
small-minded to give itself the needed space to set up the
corresponding industrial capability that utilizes the new material. Little is
done on thei wide-open front, simply because it takes twice as much energy to melt basalt than it takes to melt
steel. However, in the nuclear age, energy should no longer be deemed a big factor, especially
in heat-based processing where the theoretical energy factor is near zero, as
the heat invested for melting basalt can be recovered in the cooling process to
a large extend.
It takes 200 kilo-calories to raise the temperature of a ton of basalt one
degree Centigrade, termed
specific heat. This adds up to 280,000 kilo-calories of heat needed to raise
a ton of basalt to the process temperature of 1,400 degrees. This heat volume, by
conversion, equates to 325 Kw/hrs. That's the thermal energy needed
to process one ton of basalt.
On the basis of this facts, a 1 gigawatt nuclear
reactor would be able to process 3,000 tons of basalt per hour. However, since
much of the
heat that gets put into the process of melting the basalt can be recovered by
technological means after forming the basalt product, the entire process can be
made several times more efficient. Typically the recovered heat would be applied to preheating the feed stock.
example, only half of the process heat would be recovered, a single 1 gigawatt
plant would be able to process twice as much material, or 6,000 tons per hour.
In practice far greater efficiencies are achievable. If the process was designed
so that 90% of the input heat can be recovered in the cooling process, a
single 1 GW plant would be able to process 27,000 tons of basalt per hour, which
adds up to 23 million tons per year. This is more than double the output in
tonnage of a large-scale steel mill, and is four times greater in volume.
current world-capacity in steel production standing at roughly 1.5 billion tons,
it would take a mere 55 production units to match the current world-capacity.
However, with the structural strength of basalt being ten times greater, a mere
6 production units would be able to produce the equivalent of the entire
world-supply of structural steel products.
analysis is not intended to suggest that steel production would be displaced, but
it illustrates the enormous potential of the basalt process for revolutionizing
the economic platform of the world. In real terms, basalt would be used for
products where steel is not even considered due to its presently high production
cost (in the absence of high-temperature nuclear power).
production is not cheap. Steel production is a complex, multi-stage process, all
the way from
mining both the ore and the coal for melting it, involving secondary industries
for the processing each, such as coke making, steel smelting, and so on, till the end-stage
of the milled product is finally reached.
Let me give
you a comparison between steel making, and basalt making.
making process typically begins with the mining of hematite or magnetite
containing rock formations. The mined product is then crushed and ground into a
powder that enables magnetic separation. The result, after the tailings
(60%-75%) are removed, is a concentrate that contains 60% of iron. That's the typical
feed stock for the smelting processes. In order to produce a ton of iron, one
typically needs a mix of 1 ¾ tons of the concentrate (ore), with ¾ ton of charcoal
or coke, and ¼ ton of limestone. This is piled into the furnaces, or is continuously
fed into them.
the furnaces stand 30 feet tall.
Traditionally the materials were placed in the furnace in layers. The first
layer was charcoal, the next layer limestone, followed by the iron ore. Stoked
in this manner, a furnace is able to burn by natural draft. In modern time forced air is used, in
blast furnaces, and the charge (fuel and ore etc.) is continuously supplied as
the steel and slag are removed.
Coke burns at an extremely high temperature by which the iron in the ore melts.
In the process a small amount of the carbon is absorbed by the iron. The limestone combines
with the impurities to form a waste material called, slag. The resulting iron product
is called "pig iron" that is used for secondary manufacturing.
Coke that powers the modern process is derived from destructive distillation of
low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal. The coke making involves a high temperature
process (typically 1100°C) in an oxygen deficient atmosphere that concentrates
the carbon. Coke making is a separate industry that is loosly attached to the steel industry.
Steel making, typically
requires 4 tons of air per ton of steel, which is
either vented directly, or cleaned before venting.
The basalt processing is simpler. Here 100% of the quarried material is used.
tailings result. The quarried material is process ready as it sits on the
ground. No separate pre-processing is required. The processing itself is non-polluting.
No ash or slag are produced. The end
product is derived in a one-step process. The difference between steel
making and basalt processing appears to be of the same order of magnitude as the
difference between flying from San Francisco to Los Angeles via Tokyo, and
taking the local shuttle flight.
comparison illustrates the inherent cost differential between steel making and
the nuclear-powered basalt processing that opens up a whole new world of
applications with many types of manufacturing not yet even imagined. It wouldn't make steel production obsolete. Steel has many valuable
qualities. But the potential efficiency in basalt processing would likely result
in many more, and more efficient options, for achieving a certain industrial
for the human dimension
automated production of housing, for example, extruded multi-layer corrugated
wall units and floor units, of multiple types and shapes, etc. could be produced
in single-step processes, for an assembly-ready product that would require little
or no post-processing, and would be light in weight for easy
For construction, the strength of steel is 10 times greater than
wood, and that of basalt it 10 times greater than steel with a third of the
weight of steel. The resulting advantage could totally revolutionize housing
construction across the world, and this so rapidly that the perception of society
All that stands in the way at the preset time against this type of industrial
revolution is the currently
prevailing 'intense' smallness in thinking that society needs to free itself of. No
physical limits stand in the way.
2,000 sqft wood-frame house weighs roughly 50 tons. If this weight was reduced
to only 10 tons with the use of high-strength modules - which should be
achievable with basalt - a single 1 GW basalt processing plant should, on this
platform, be able to produce the modular components for 2,700 houses in one
hour. Even if this theoretical capacity cannot be achieved, the automated
manufacturing of 2,000 houses an hour (or 17 million houses a year) from a single
facility, would go a long way in changing the living environment of society
across the world.
method would also enable the automated industrial mass-production of modules
for the floating agriculture that will be needed to facilitate large
scale agriculture in the tropics when the next Ice Age begins in potentially
30 years. The building of these types of infrastructures, including the
needed floating cities and numerous related infrastructures, is
not optional. No other method exists, or is possible, to create the new cities and
industries that are required to relocate a large portion of humanity from the
Ice Age endangered zones, to safely liveable zones.
is ideally positioned
Canada's position on the American continent, which enables it to facilitate the new industrial
revolution based on basalt products
second-largest flood basalt province in the world is located in Canada, in the Northwest Territory.
It is named the Mackenzie
Large Igneous Province.
Large Igneous Province
It exists as
a 'swarm' of deposits that occupies an area of at roughly 2,700,000 square
kilometers, containing the second-largest basalt volume in the world at an
estimated volume of 650,000 cubic kilometers. Its
enormous size makes the Mackenzie Large Igneous Province as a whole, larger in area than
the entire U.S. State of Alaska. And best of all, the area is located in close
proximity to the northern cosmic electric interface in the form of the northern aurora
belt. This electric belt is visible as a background glow even without the famous
aurora events occurring.
electric energy is faintly visible in the sky over both of the polar regions.
It is also referred to as the polar electrojets. With the appropriate
technology these ready-made energy streams can be made available to drive
technological processes, such as the basalt-based industrial revolution that
thereby becomes enabled in Canada's North.
The same electrojets
energy belt also skirts northern Siberia in Russia, where the world's largest
basalt province is located, known as the
Siberian Traps flood
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The Siberian Traps extend across 2 million square kilometers – an area roughly equal to all of western Europe. The volume
of the basalt located there is estimated at 1 to 4 million cubic kilometers. All of this is 100% usable high-grade industrial material.
availability of these vast stores of material, in conjunction with a potential
cosmic-electric energy interface being located nearby, renders Russia and
Canada natural partners for the development of the new industrial revolution
that is required for creating the infrastructures for the coming Ice Age
cosmic-electric interface is also available at the location of the world's
third-largest flood basalt province, the
Traps in west-central India that consist of multiple layers of solidified
flood basalt, which together are more than 6,000 ft thick in some places and cover
an area of 500,000 sq km (193,051 sq mi). The Deccan Traps contain a
basalt volume of 512,000 cubic kilometers (123,000 cu mi). The term
'traps' is derived from the Dutch word for stairs, referring to the step-like
features of the basalt formations.
world, with energy galore
basalt in the provinces to cover the entire land area of the Earth 50 to 120
feet deep, depending on the estimates. This adds up to more readily available
building material than can ever be used. So, why
shouldn't we start right now, using the best that we have, to built our new world
with that we will absolutely require in the future? Is there
anything more that we need, in terms of high-grade construction material and
energy resources than
what presently have at hand unused? Are we having cause for hope yet?
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